Nowadays skin diseases are becoming quite common due to various environmental factors. Skin pigmentation and dark spots over the skin is a severe problem seen in both the genders, especially more seen in females. This may be due to the variations in hormonal imbalance, continuous usage of cosmetic products like concealers, creams, or any other chemicals. 

Any discoloration that is present on the skin can be termed as pigmentation. This is completely harmless which happens due to excess melanin production. When this deposits over the skin it results in hyperpigmentation.

Types of Pigmentations
1. Age spots 

Age spots are the most commonly seen pigmentation issue which happens as a result of sun damage (caused due to frequent exposure to the sun). 

2. Melasma

Melasma also known as chloasma is another type of hyperpigmentation, which is characterized by spots over the face that covers a larger area on the skin.  These are usually resulted due to hormonal changes. For instance, during pregnancy the hormone variations may trigger the production of melanin and cause darkening of the skin. 

3. Freckles (ephelides) 

Freckles appear as tiny dots and specks on the face and shoulder area. This also happens due to over exposure of skin to the sunlight.

What causes Hyperpigmentation?

  • UV rays remains as the biggest culprit that triggers over production of melanin. The damage caused due to these harmful rays cannot be visible immediately. This takes a long term to develop over the face.  
  • Any type of skin damage caused by injury (also known as post-inflammatory pigmentation)
  • Hormonal variations during pregnancy
  • Skin rashes
  • Infections to the skin (such as acne)
  • Melasma occurs commonly in people those taking contraceptives or subjected to the hormone replacement therapy.
  • Hyperpigmentation can also be due to metabolic causes. The mainly noted complaints are deficiency like Vitamin B12 and folic acids. 
  • Intake of certain medicines for a long time can lead to gradual development of pigments.                    E.g.: Anti-inflammatory drugs, cytotoxic drugs, antimalarial drugs, and psychotropic drugs.  
  • If the skin is exposed continuously with chemicals like salicylic acid, bleomycin and cisplatin can lead to hyperpigmentation. 
  • Mercury poisoning is another listed cause that lead to hyperpigmentation. This can also occur due to cutaneous exposure from topical application of ointments which contains mercury. 
  • Due to fungal infections like tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and tinea versicolor, there is chances for developing hyperpigmentation. 
  • Any underlying medical conditions like, Celiac disease, dermatitis, eczema, medullary cystic kidney diseases, some malignant conditions also promote hyperpigmentation.  
  • Sometimes dermatological procedures to the skin can cause hyperpigmentation. E.g.: laser procedures.

What are the symptoms of Hyperpigmentation? 

Typically, hyperpigmentation occurs over the face.

  • Brown patches on the skin
  • Patches are symmetrical
  • Patches usually appear on the forehead, chin, cheeks, and bridge of the nose. They may appear on the forearms and neck.
  • Generally, the pigments appear after the inflammation or injury is healed.
  • The lesions are usually black or light brown.
  • The patches turn darker when exposed to the sunlight.

9 Effective Home Remedies to reduce Hyperpigmentation

1. Manjishta (Indian madder)

The application of Manjishta root powder with milk over the hyperpigmented area gives excellent results.

Manjishta is an ayurvedic drug that is proven to act wonderfully over the skin. It is the best blood detoxifier. The herb helps to improve the complexion and evens the skin tone. Long term usage of this remedy helps to clear off the dark spots over the face and makes it glow like gold.

2. Aloe vera

Take a fresh leaf of Aloe Vera.  Cut into pieces and scrape out the pulp from it. Mix it with 1 teaspoon of honey and keep for 10minutes. After that apply the mixture over the face and let it dry for 30minutes. Wash the face with the lukewarm water. This should be regularly continued, at least thrice in a week.

Aloe vera has properties that soothe the skin and gives a natural glow. It has an active ingredient called aloin which has the skin lightening property.

3. Kumkumadi Taila Application

Massage the face with Kumkumadi taila, and apply it evenly. The oil soothes the hyperpigmented skin and reduces the darkened spots.

Regular usage of this oil helps the face appear clean, clear and beautiful.

4. Lemon Juice with Honey

Take 2 tablespoons of Lemon juice and 1 teaspoon of organic honey. Mix both the contents thoroughly and apply the mixture over the affected area. Leave it to dry for 20 minutes. Wash off with lukewarm water.

Lemon is known to be a potent bleaching agent and possesses skin lightening properties. Regular usage of this mixture helps to clear off the pigmentation marks and brightens the skin tone.

5. Licorice Extract

Take 4-5 medium-sized licorice roots. Clean it properly and remove the dirt present. Add 2 cups of water in a pan and heat it. To this add the root and boil in medium flame for 10mins. Let the water cool down. Strain and store the liquid in a bottle. Use this mixture as a toner. Apply it twice daily for excellent results.

Licorice helps to disperse the melanin and inhibit the action of melanin biosynthesis to reduce hyperpigmentation and brighten the skin.

6. Tomato Juice

Take a fresh tomato and extract the juices. Apply it over the pigmented area and allow it to dry. Wash the face with lukewarm water and repeat this twice daily.

The presence of lycopene in tomato reduces the effect of scars and pigmentation over the face. 

7. Orange Peel with Lemon Juice

The properly sundried orange peel should be taken and 1 teaspoon of lemon juice is added to this. Mix the contents properly, add 1 teaspoon of honey to it and again make it to a uniform mixture. Apply this mixture over the affected area and leave it to dry. Wash off with lukewarm water.

The orange peel mixture has the ability to reduce the melanin deposits over the skin, fades the dark spots, and brightens the skin. 

8. Papaya with milk and honey

Take a papaya and peel off the skin. Cut them into small pieces and crush it. Add 3 tablespoon of milk and 2 teaspoons of honey. Mix them thoroughly. Apply it over the face and leave it for about 30minutes. Rinse the face with lukewarm water. This should be regularly continued for attaining the best results.

9. Turmeric with lemon juice

Take turmeric powder and add a few drops of lemon juice and make it into a paste.  Apply it over the affected area. Allow it to dry and wash off with lukewarm water. 

Time unknown turmeric stands first to treat most of the diseases. Turmeric has been a household content in most of the face packs. Turmeric is a rich antioxidant, which helps the skin to rejuvenate. It also helps in balancing the pH level of the skin and adds a radiant glow to the face.  
All these are natural ingredients that usually don’t have any side effects unless the skin is prone to allergy or have hypersensitive skin. These are safe and regular usage of these remedies can fetch wonderful results. But, if the condition is very severe with any associated symptoms, medical intervention is required.